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Goodword 

ISLAMIC STUDIES 



A Graded Course 


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Grade 8 




goodwordbooks.com 



Help your Child understand the stories 
from the Ouran 



goodwordbooks.com 


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Goodword 


ISLAMIC STUDIES 



This course has been designed to present the young 
students a comprehensive Islamic education, comprising 
general Islamic knowledge based on the Quran and 
Hadith. Instead of teaching moral principles directly, they 
are taught through themes chosen from the Quran and 
other Islamic Sources. Though basically intended for use 
as a school textbook, it is also an ideal tool for home 
schooling involving both the parents and children. In 
this way children will not only learn the ethical values 
conveyed by the message of Islam but will also be 
stimulated to want to know more about Islamic 
teachings when they grow up. 


GOODWORD 


www.goodwordbooks.com 


ISBN 81-7898-500-4 


9 788178 985008 



m 


Goodword 

Islamic Studies 



A Graded Course 
Grade 8 


Mohammad Khalid Perwez 




First published 2006 
Reprinted 2010 
© Goodword Books 2010 

Goodword Books 

1, Nizamuddin West Market, New Delhi-1 10 013 
email: info@goodwordbooks.com 
Printed in India 

see our complete catalogue at 

www.goodwordbooks.com 

www.goodword.net 



CONTENTS 


1 The Quran: The Base of Islam 4 

2 Oneness of Allah ( Tawheed) 9 

3 Prayer (Salah) 12 

4 Fasting ( Saum ) 24 

5 Alms-giving ( Zakah ) 30 

6 Hajj 38 

7 A Compiler of Hadith 46 

8 The Story of the Prophet Isa $$ i 51 

9 The Conquest of Makkah 58 

10 Islamic Society 64 

11 Man’s Accountability 70 


Chapter 1 


The Quran: The Base of 
Islam 



The Quran is the Holy Book which was revealed by Allah to the 
Prophet Muhammad #. It is the most beautiful gift to mankind from 
its Creator. It is known by many names, among which are Al-Furqcin 
(the criterion), Al-Huda (guidance), Al-Mufassal (the fully explained), 
etc. and its meaning is ‘reading’. The Quran contains the Divine 
Words of Allah who is the Creator and the Sustainer of the universe 
and all that it holds. These words were revealed through the Angel 
Jibril (Gabriel) to the Prophet Muhammad #. It is a manual for 
mankind to lead a contented and honest life. It has instructions from 
God to human beings, showing them the clear path of chastity, 
honesty and faithfulness. The mission of the Quran is to direct 
creation from darkness to light — to the Way of the Almighty and 
Most High Allah. 

Why does Allah want us to follow this chosen path? It is because 
He loves us more than anybody else does, even more than our parents, 


4 




brothers and sisters or teachers do! Allah wants us to be happy and 
successful in this life and in the life after this one, so He gave us the 
means to find that happiness and success by believing in Him and 
what He has revealed in the Holy Qur’an. 

The Quran is a treasure-trove of knowledge presented to us by 
that Majestic Sovereign Lord, Allah. It is like a bouquet of divine 
flowers whose sweet smell, if we breathe it in deeply, purifies our 
souls. When we speak with this knowledge, we speak in the language 
of peace, goodness and respect, because we start living by those 
ideals which Allah has fixed for us. 

The Quran is the Book of Ultimate Wisdom and Truth. It 
provides inspiration for those who seek justice and knowledge in 
life. Allah has shown us the steps to achieve enlightenment and 
salvation through accepting what we have been given and rejecting 
what we have been forbidden. We must aspire to live up to the 
expectation of our Lord and 
He helps us by giving us clear 
guidance in the Quran. 

The Quran also contains 
stories of past prophets like 
the Prophet Adam £ur, the 
Prophet Nuh or Noah £&, the 
Prophet Ibrahim or 

Abraham the Prophet 
Sulayman £&, Solomon 
the Prophet Dawud or David 

the Prophet Isa or Jesus and others. Through their stories, we 
are taught and admonished not to go astray, as that would earn the 
anger and punishment of Allah. 

Allah is our Creator and Master; therefore, He cares for us and 
has sent His messengers (prophets) to warn and give glad tidings of 



5 


His Mercy and Might. These honourable men were given the task of 
providing the tools necessary to save creation from despair and 
faithlessness by encouraging us to learn about loving, worshipping 
and obeying the One True God. 

The Quran is the guiding spirit that takes us to the heights of 
righteousness. By following the Qur’an, we live with strong values 
and with the noble purpose of serving Allah. We can thus become 
moral and responsible human beings who embody the attributes of 
love, honesty and faith. Allah says in the Quran, ‘This Book is not to 
be doubted. It is guide for the righteous, who have faith in the unseen 
and are steadfast in prayer; who bestow in charity a part of what We 
have given them; who trust what has been revealed to you and to 



others before you, and firmly believe in the life to come. These are 
rightly guided by their Lord; these shall surely triumph.’ (Surah 2:1) 

The fundamentals of Islam are based on the teachings of the Quran. 
The Quran is the Divine Book of Laws, the principles of which are 
laid down in the most explicit terms in the Quran itself. The essence 
of the teachings of the Quran is the faith in Islam as it was professed 
by the Prophet Muhammad # and taught by him to all mankind. 


6 



An Eternal Concept 

This universe is the creation of Allah. He has made this universe 
and everything in it with some purpose. Allah created the earth, the 
sky, the sun, the moon, the stars and many more things which are 
all under His command. All bow to Allah in complete submission 
and strictly follow the routine laid down for them by Him. 


Allah created the first man and the first prophet, Adam, and 
from him came the Children of Adam ift ( Bani Adam) which denotes 
mankind. Allah gave the human soul the ability and natural 
disposition to accept Allah as his Master and to follow His dictates. 
This was Islam — an eternal religion which demanded recognition 
of Allah as the one God whose command was obeyed by everything 
in this universe. Whenever human beings forgot this teaching, Allah 
sent prophets to remind them of this eternal concept. 



As Allah says in the Quran: 


‘To Allah bows all that is in the heavens 
and on earth, whether living creatures 
or the angels, for none are arrogants 
before their Lord. ” ( 16:49). 



7 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 

a. The meaning of the word Quran is . (Laws/Reading) 

b. The Quran is the Book of Ultimate . (Wisdom/Language) 

c. Allah has sent his .(Messenger/Messengers) 

d. The Fundamentals of Islam are based on the teachings of the . 

(Quran/ Hadith) 

e. This is the creation of Allah.(World / Universe) 

f. Islam is an religion, (eternal/ old) 


2. Match the Columns 

Column A 

Al-Huda 

The Quran 

Al-Furqan 

Al-Mufassal 


Column B 

The fully explained 
Guidance 
Reading 
The criterion 


3. Answer the following questions 

a. Who revealed the Quran and what does the Quran contain? 

b. Give any three names of the Quran. What do they signify? 

c. What do you understand by Islam? 

4. Divide the class in the groups of four and discuss - why the Quran is the 
most beautiful gift to mankind. The discussion can be in the light of the 
daily life. Every group has to make a report. A student from each group can 
read out the report in the class. 

5 . Identify and recite at least three Surahs which describe the importance of the 
Quran in our lives. Make a note of them. 


8 


Chapter 2 


Oneness of Allah 
(Taw heed) 


Islam is built on five pillars. They are called the arkan of Islam, 
which are the five basic duties which all Muslims must perform. 
They are not the whole of Islam but without them Islam would not 



really exist. These five arkans are like the ‘pillars’ which support 
the edifice of Islam. If any of the ‘pillars’ is weak, the whole building 
(Islam) suffers. 

These five pillars are Shahadah, Salah, Sawn, Zakah and Hajj. 


Acknowledgement of Allah as one’s Lord and 
Master (Shahadah) 


Shahadah is the first 
pillar of Islam, without 
which the rest is 
meaningless. The word 
Shahada derives from the 
word Ashhadu which 
means “I declare” or “I 



9 






bear witness”. Shahada states: Lailaha Illalahu Muhammadur 
Rasoolullah (There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the 
messenger of Allah). 



Shahadah is acknowledgement of Allah as one’s Lord and 
Master and the Prophet Muhammad as the messenger of Allah. When 
the individual declares Shahadah and truly believes it in his heart, 
he becomes a Muslim, after which it is around Allah alone that all 
his thoughts and emotions revolve. He places his complete trust in 
Allah, therefore, his every action is directed towards earning Allah’s 
favour. When he acknowledges God as his Lord and Master, he 
enters into a contract with God, a covenant which excludes all other 
beings and makes Him all in all. To declare Shahada is to have 
faith in one who is Creator, Master and Sustainer of the universe 
and to accept that the Prophet Muhammad ^ is the messenger sent 
by Allah. Allah sent all His messengers to teach mankind the path 
that would lead them to salvation. Allah revealed the Holy Book, 
the Quran to the Prophet Muhammad who was the last of His 
messengers. When a man fully accepts Shahadah he cannot but 
attribute all greatness to Allah and lead all his life according to the 
Sunnah or the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad #. 


10 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 

a. If any of the five Pillars of Islam is weak, the whole building (Islam) 
. (suffers/ does not suffer) 

b. The first pillar of Islam is . (Salah/ Shahada) 

c. The Prophet Muhammad u was the messenger of Allah. 

(one of the / last) 

d. When a man fully accepts Shahada and leads all his life according to the 
(Sunnah/ way of his parents) 

e. Shahada states . 

(I declare / Lailaha Illallahu Muhammadur Rassolullah ) 


2. Match the Columns 


Column A 

Column B 

Arkan 

The tradition of the Prophet Muhammad. 

Shahadah 

God 

Messengers 

Pillars 

The Creator 

declaration 

Sunnah 

The prophets 


3. Answer the following questions 

a. What are the five pillars of Islam? What do you understand by ‘If any of 
the pillars is weak, the whole building of Islam suffers? 

b. Define Shahadah. 

c. What does Shahadah demand of a believer? 

4. Divide the class in four groups and have an in depth discussion on Shahadah 
and each group should share their views with the rest of the class. After the 
discussion everyone should write what they understand from the discussion. 


11 


Chapter 3 


Prayer (Salah) 



Salah is a kind of prayer which a Muslim must perform five 
times in a day. Salah, or the five daily prayers, constitutes the second 
pillar of Islam. During Salah everything else in life is set aside for a 
few moments and Muslims concentrate solely on Allah, praising 
Him, thanking Him, and asking for His forgiveness and blessing. 
Salah is regarded as a duty that must be performed even if at work, 
at home, on a journey or even at war. 

A Muslim is not supposed to omit his prayers on any account. 
When a Muslim is too ill to stand or kneel, he can go through the 
motion of the prayer in his heart while sitting or lying down and 
reciting the words. A Muslim must begin to practice Salah when he 
is about seven years old, and by the age of twelve it is expected of 
him as a duty. 

When the time for Salah comes, Muslims perform a ritual 
cleansing which is called wudu (ablutions) after which they make 
their way to the mosque, where they all assemble and pray. The 


12 



prayer is led by an Imam. The Salah has various stages; standing, 
bowing, kneeling and self-prostrating before God. In assuming these 
various postures, the congregation demonstrate their submission to 
the Lord. 

During the Salah ayats or verses from the Quran are recited. 
Besides this, the prayer includes praise and remembrance of God, 
supplications to Him and the expression of goodwill towards the 
Prophet and all believers. Salah is said in the Arabic language, the 
language of the Qur’an. 

Salah, as well as being a ritual mode of worship, is an expression 
of the inner realities of humanity and devotion to God. The ultimate 
acknowledgment of Allah’s greatness is the repetition of the words 
Allahu Akbar, which means 'Allah is the Great. 


The Call to prayer 


ft 


A 


You already know that Muslims are supposed to pray five times 
in a day. These prayers are said at appointed times. At these times, a 
call to prayer is made by a man who is called a muezzin. A muezzin 
can be any person, not necessarily a 
man specially appointed for this 
purpose. He must know how to make 
a call to prayer. The call to prayer is 
called adhan in Arabic. It was 
instituted by the Prophet after his 
arrival in Madinah in 623 CE. When 
the call to prayer is made, everyone 
hearing it should repeat its words 
softly. 

You must know the words of 
adhan. Here they are given with their 
meanings in English. 





13 


Allahu Akbar - Four times 
( Allah is Great) 

J 

Ashhaduall Ahilaha illallah - twice 
(I bear witness that there is no god but Allah) 

4 

Ashaduanna Muhammadurasullullah - twice 
(I bear witness that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah) 


Hayya alas-salah - twice 
(Come to salahj 

Hayyaalalfalah - twice 
( Come to success) 

Allahu Akbar - twice 
(Allah is Great) 

Lailaha illallah - once 
(There is no god but Allah) 


4 

4 


J 


After the completion of adhan, everyone must say the following 

dua: 


Allahuma Rabba hadhihiddawatit-tamaati 
wassalawaatil quaimati aati Muhammadanil 
waseelata wal faze elata wab’ashu maqamamma 
hamoodanil-ladhi wa’adt ahu 


| 

1 

1 

W 

4 

-S' 

\ 

4 

I 


Allah! Lord of this perfect call and of salat to be offered 
presently, vouchsafe Mohammad M the way of approach 
unto Thee and also excellence and elevate him to the 
glorious position which Thou hast promised him. 




14 


About this dua, the Prophet Muhammad said, 
“Whoever says this dua after listening to azaan 
will be entitled to my recommendation. ” (Bukhari). 





Prescribed Conditions for Prayer 

There are five conditions which have to be fulfilled for salat to 
be valid. 

a. Cleanliness or Taharat 

b. Ablutions or Wudu ( ghusl ) 

c. Time 

d. Dress (covering of satr) 

e. Qiblah (direction of worship) 


Let us learn about each topic mentioned above. 


a. Cleanliness ( Taharat ) 

Taharat can be defined as a state of physical cleanliness. Allah 
directs us in the Quran to maintain a state of taharat, or cleanliness. 
Muslims have been commanded by Allah to remain clean at all times 
but more so during salah, for salah cannot be performed without 
acquiring taharat or cleanliness. In the Quran in surah 9 at tauba, 
verse 108, it is mentioned that Allah loves those who make 
themselves pure. 

The last prophet of Allah has also stressed the need to be 
particular about personal hygiene. The holy Prophet ^ said: 
“Cleanliness is half the faith” (Bukhari and Muslim). 


15 


Therefore, it is necessary for every Muslim to know what criteria 
Islam has laid down for being clean. There is no question of personal 
likes and dislikes, one can achieve cleanliness only by the methods 
taught by Islam for this purpose. 

There is some najasat or pollution whose presence in one’s body 
makes one impure or unfit to offer salah. Its removal by the prescribed 
method is necessary to be able to revert to the state of taharat required 
to offer salat. 


b. Ablution ( Wudu ) 

After the call to prayer has 
been made, all Muslims are 
required to start the preparation 
for prayer. Salaha is an act of 
worship which is performed in a 
state of ritual cleanliness. This 
state is brought about by wudu or 
ablution, which is cleaning 
oneself with water in a particular 
manner. By performing wudu, 
one acquires not only physical 
cleanliness, but also the pure and clean state of mind which is so 
necessary for performing salah with humility. Wudu is performed 
with water, but in circumstances where water is unavailable or its 
use is detrimental to health, one is allowed to do tayyamum, which 
is done with sand or clay. Allah sees one’s intention, not just one’s 
deeds. Islam allows concessions to its followers in any difficult 
situation. Tayamum is one such concession and in difficult situations 
it is equal to doing wudu. It produces the same kind of cleanliness as 
one achieves after performing wudu. 

The manner in which wudu should be done was explained to 
the Muslims by the Prophet Muhammad You must already know 



16 


how to perform wudu, however, it would be good to highlight the 
obligatory actions (famed) in wudu for you. 

1 . Washing of the full face. 

2. Washing of both arms from the fingertips up to 
and including the elbows. 

3. Masah of at least one quarter of the surface of the 
head from the forehead. 

4. Washing of both feet up to and including the ankle 
bones. 

It would also be good for you to know the sunnah in wudu. 
These actions were carried out by the Prophet Muhammad # while 
performing wudu , therefore, highly recommended for the Muslims. 

1 . Reciting bismillah hir Rahman nir Rahim before 
starting wudu 

2. Using miswak for cleaning the teeth. 

3. Starting with the right hand, arm and foot. 

4. Doing everything three times except the masah 
(passing wet hands over the head) 

5. Passing the fingers of one hand through the 
fingers of the other. This is called khilal. 

6. Washing with due care with the intention of 
cleaning rather than as a mere formality. 

7. Maintaining the given sequence of actions. 

8. Using water carefully and not unnecessarily 
wasting it. 

9. Reciting the following dua at the completion of 
wudu : Ashhada an lailaha illallah wahdahu la 
sharika lahu wa ashhadu anna muhammadan 
abdahu wa rasulahu. ’ 


17 


You know that one can perform salah after wudu as long as 
one’s wudu is valid. There are a few actions which invalidate wudu. 
In such a situation one has to stop one’s salah and again do the 
wudu , then complete one’s salah. 

The following actions invalidate wudu: 

1. Sleeping with support. However, dozing while 
sitting without support or during ruku or sajdah 
for a moment or two does not render the wudu 
invalid. 

2. Unconsciousness for any reason. 

3. Touching of the private parts directly. 

4. Touching the opposite sex, including kissing. 

5. Laughing during salat. 

6. Passing of wind from the body. 

7. Discharge and flow of blood, puss, etc. 

8. Profuse vomiting. 


c. Time 



Salah or the five daily prayers are said at 
appointed times. Based upon the revelations of 
the verses of the Quran, the frequency and 
timings of salah were laid down by the Holy 
Prophet. Salat offered within these timing is 
called Ada, i.e. offered in time. If somebody 
fails to perform salat at these timings, he is 
permitted to offer Qadha salat i.e. salat 
performed at times other than appointed times. 


18 


However, it is imperative for Muslims to offer salat within these 
timings in congregation in the mosque. Offering salat individually 
is an exception under circumstances beyond the control of an 
individual. Muslims are supposed to say these five daily prayers in 
congregation in a mosque and not let these prayers become Qadha. 
However, ladies are permitted to offer salah at home individually. 

There is a hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari which highlights the 
importance of saying salah at the appointed times. It tells of Abdullah 
bin Masud asking the Prophet Muhammad #, “Which deed is the 
dearest to Allah?” He replied, “To offer prayers at their stated fixed 
times.” He then asked, “What is the next in goodness?” He replied, 
“To be good and dutiful to your parents.” He again asked, “What is 
the next?” He replied, “To participate in jihad in Allah’s cause.” 

In the Quran also, Muslims have been exhorted to say salat at 
fixed times. Allah says in the Quran in Surah an-Nisa in verse 103: 

i 

_ “ Indeed prayer af fixed hours have been j 

enjoined on the believers. ” (4:103). | 


We understand that you must already know the timings of the 
five mandatory daily prayers. However, you should also know that 
there are some specific times when offering salah is not approved 
of. It is considered makruh or undesirable to offer salah at these 
forbidden timings. However, under exceptional circumstances, 
offering salah at these undesirable timings is permitted in order to 
avoid salah becoming Qadah. 

The timings at which salah is undesirable are as follows: 

1. After offering the Fajr Prayers till the sun rises. 

2. During the rising of the sun. 


19 


3. At noon when the sun is at its zenith 

4. After offering salat al-Asr until sunset 

5. During the setting of the sun. 

There is a hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari about these forbidden 
timings. Ibn Umar said, “Allah’s messenger said, ‘Do not offer salat 
(prayer) at the time of sunrise and at the time of sunset.’” 

d. Dress for Salah 

Salah is an act of worship to Allah, therefore, it is necessary for 
the worshipper to wear clothes befitting this occasion. They should 
be free of all filth and pollutants and lend dignity to the appearance 
of the person. Islam attaches great importance to dress by including 
it in the prescribed condition of salat. It expects people to dress 
decently and be dignified without being extravagant and showy. It 
does not approve of obscenity or indecency in public places, the 
more so during the pious duty of worship by human beings. Such an 
act would indeed be a degradation of the highest status accorded to 
them out of all the creations of the universe. 

Satr 

Allah has prescribed a minimum standard for the 
covering of the body for worshippers. A worshipper has 
to cover certain parts of the body failing which his salat 
will not be accepted. Those parts of the body which must 
be covered properly during salah is called satr. 

Satr for Men 

The minimum requirement for men to be g 

able to perform prayer is that they should be I 
covered from the navel to the knee, because £. 



20 


for men, their body parts from the navel to the knee constitute their 

satr. 

Satr for women 


In the case of women, their whole body is 
considered satr, except the hands (up to the wrists) and 
face (excluding ears and hair). Therefore, a woman must 
cover her entire body, except the face and hand up to 
the wrists during salah and at other times also, because 
Allah says in the Quran in Surah an-Noor that believing 
women should draw their veils over themselves 
and not display their beauty. Therefore, Islam 
teaches women to dress modestly and 
maintain hijab in their daily lives. Salah 



being an act of personal worship to Allah, requires the upholding of 
the correct dress code as taught by the Prophet Muhammad 


e. Qiblah 

The Qiblah is the direction in which the Holy Kabah is located. 
Muslims are supposed to offer their salah facing towards the Kabah. 
This is evident from the Quranic injunctions revealed by Allah in 
verse 144 of the Surah al-Baqarah. 

Allah says: “Turn then 
your face in the direction of the 
sacred mosque, wherever you 
are, turn your face in that 
direction.” 

The Kabah is the Holy 
House of Allah. It is the first 
house on earth built solely for 
the worship of Allah. It is thus 



21 


a symbol of monotheism or tawhid in Islam and also of the unity of 
the mission of all the prophets of Allah. It also symbolises the unity 
of the Muslim community. Muslims, therefore, pray neither to the 
east nor to the west, but to Allah alone in the direction of the Qiblah. 
By laying down the direction of our five daily prayers, Allah has 
laid down the real orientation of our lives which is the remembrance 
and consciousness of Allah. 

Every Muslim should strive to say his prayers in the direction 
of the Kabah. However, on journeys and in dangerous situations, a 
worshipper may pray in any direction convenient to him. One should 
not miss or postpone salat in a situation when one is not sure of the 
direction of the Kabah. One must offer prayers in the direction one 
feels to be the Qiblah. 



22 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 


a. Salah is regarded as a duty that be performed even at war. 

(must/ must not) 

b. Salah is an expression of the realities of humanity and devotion to 

God. (inner/ outer) 

c. During Wudu, Masah must be done Time(s). (three/ one) 

d. The one who gives the call to prayer is called a (Qazi/ Muezzin) 

e. Those parts of the body which must be covered during Salah is called 
. (fatr / satr) 

f. In the Qur’an also, Muslims have been exhorted to say salat at . 

(five fixed times/anytime). 


2. Match the Columns 


Column A 

Qadha 

Allahu Akbar 

Qiblah 

Satr 

Najasat 

Ruku 

Makruh 


Column B 

Kabah 

Bending position in salah 

Missed prayer peformed at other times. 

God is great 
Undesirable 

Minimum covering of the body during salah 
Pollution 


3. Answer the following questions 

a. Define salah. 

b. What is the call to prayer? 

c. What are the prescribed conditions for a valid salat ? 

d. Discuss the concept of cleanliness or taharat in Islam. 

e. What are the obligatory actions and sunnah in wudul 

f. What is satrl 

g. At what times is the performing of salah undesirable? 

4. In the light of Salah have a class discussion on the importance of prayers with 
discipline in Islam. After the discussion everyone should write about it. 

5. The students have to recite the Ayaats said in the Salah. After that the teacher 
should explain their meanings and significance. 

6. Every student should maintain a monthly chart for the teacher to check whether 
they are regularly praying five times a day or not. 


23 


Chapter 4 


Fasting (Sawn) 


Saum is ritual 
fasting in the month of 
Ramadan, the ninth 
month of the Muslim 
lunar calendar. Saum is 
the third pillar of Islam. 

The period of fasting 
each day lasts from the 
first light of dawn until 
sunset. Saum is the 
deliberate control of the 
body by an act of will. 

A real conscious effort 
must be made to make 
sure that no evil deed is 
committed or any bad thought is entertained. If the emotions of the 
heart or mind, or the behaviour of the Muslim are wrong, then the 
fast will lose its real significance. This physical abstinence from 
food and control over behaviour strengthen one’s capacity for 
patience and fortitude. Saum teaches us self-control and how to 
overcome greed and laziness. 

God has bestowed innumerable blessings upon man in this world. 
But man does not see them for the great blessings that they are. It is 
only when he observes the ritual of fasting that he truly realizes their 
significance and has a proper sense of gratitude for them. It is in the 
evening, after a day of hunger, thirst, exhaustion and discomfort, when 
a man consumes food, that his awareness of God’s bounty is most 
intense. One of the aims of Saum is to teach precisely this kind 



24 




of restraint and patience. The life which a believer is required to live 
on earth is, from beginning to end, a life of patience. He must confine 
himself to what is lawful and keep his distance from what has been 
decreed unlawful by the Almighty. The whole life of a believer is, in 
a sense, a life of fasting: he is required to abstain not just from food 
and drink but from anything which is wrong. He is also to refrain 
from attempting to make lawful anything which God has disallowed. 

Do’s and Don’ts in Saum 

We should first know what the aims of Saum are. Sawn is without 
doubt a great act of deliberate control of the body at the command of 
God. Accordingly, it is worthy of an immense reward from Allah. 
The significance of Ramadhan has become known to us through the 
sayings of the Prophet Muhammad There is a hadith according 
to which Allah says: “The fasting person has left off his food, drink 
and desires for My sake. The fast is for Me. So I will reward him for 
it and the reward for good deeds is multiplied ten times.” 

The aims of sawn are to: 


While observing sawn, one has to follow some do’s and don’ts. 
It should be the aim of every believer to observe sawn as best as he 
can. Since it is compulsory for the adult Muslim to observe the fasts 



develop self control; 
develop sympathy for the poor; 
refrain from passion; and 
gain spiritual strength. 


25 


of Ramadhan, it would be useful to know at this point how one 
should observe these fasts, so that they are accepted by Allah. 


Here are some do’s while observing saum. 



Do’s 



Saying all prayers in congregation in the mosque. 

Saying all nawafil prayers. 

Reciting from the Quran as much as we can. 

Doing dhikr of Allah all the time. 

Reciting darud frequently when not saying salat 
or reading the Quran. 

Giving in charity and feeding the poor. 


26 



0 Inviting the poor and needy on iftar and dinner. 

^ Inviting one’s relatives and friends on iftar. 

Q Saying tarawih prayers at night after isha. 

Q Saying tahajjud prayers, especially on all lailatul 

Qadr. 

^ Giving fitr before the end of the Ramadhan. 

Here are some don’ts which one must observe if one wants 
one’s fast to be valid and accepted by Allah. 

Don’ts 




Telling lies 

Foolish behaviour 

Fighting 

Abusing 

All evil actions 

Sexual acts 


There are conditions in which Muslims are meant to omit fasts. 
But these fasts omitted under difficult conditions are supposed to 
be made up later. Those who are old and weak are, however, excused 
from fasting, and they should, in order to earn Allah’s reward provide 
food for the needy, if they can afford it. 


27 



The people mentioned below can omit their fasts: 



The old and the weak 
Pregnant and nursing mothers 
Children below twelve years 
Those who are sick 
Those who are on a journey 


Voluntary Fasting (Nawafil Saum) 

There are some saum which, though not being fard, i.e., 
compulsory, were kept by the Prophet Muhammad Hence these 
are highly recommended for Muslims. 

These fasts are: 

The fast of Ashura 
The fast of Yaume-Arafa 




28 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 

a. Fasting is observed from dawn till . (noon / dusk) 

b. Fasting enables us to spiritual strength, (gain / lose) 

c. We should give fitrah the end of ramadhan. (before / after) 

d. Allah says: “The fast is for my sake. So I will reward him for it and the 

reward is . (multiplied ten times / ten times). 

e. There in which Muslims are meant to omit fasts. 

(are conditions / are not any conditions) 

f. An adult who misses fasts, must make up by keeping . (one / all 

fasts) 


2. Match the Columns 


Column A 

Column B 

Saum 

Powerful nights 

Dhikr 

A special prayer during Ramadhan 

Tarawih 

Breaking of fast 

Tahajjud 

Voluntary fasts 

Lailatul Qadr 

Remembrance of Allah 

Iftar 

Fast 

Nawafil saum 

A special prayer said before dawn 


3. Answer the following questions 


a. What is the importance of Saum in Islam? 

b. Discuss the do’s and don’ts in Saum. 

c. What is nawafil saum? 

4.. Every student should write their individual experience of realizing any of 
the aims of the Saum, during fasting. 

5. There should be a class discussion on how observance of Saum helps us to 
understand Islam and brings us closer to Allah. 


29 


Chapter 5 


Almsgiving (Zakat) 


Zakat (alms-giving) is the 
fourth pillar of Islam. Zakat is 
given out of one’s savings and 
wealth at a minimum fixed rate 
of 2.5% per annum. This is a 
religious duty performed by 
every Muslim who has savings 
at the end of the year. The word 
‘ Zakat ’ means to purify or 
cleanse. The aim of paying 
Zakat is to keep one’s wealth 
from becoming a source of 
greed and selfishness. It is also 
a test of Muslim honesty when 
it comes to expenditure. Zakat 
is meant to cleanse the heart of the love of money and the desire to 
cling to it. Money is for the service of humanity and for promoting 
good and justice in the world. 

Zakat gives a clear indication of what one’s responsibilities to 
others should be. Everyone is expected to sympathize with those 
afflicted by adversity. Zakat brings the realization that all of one’s 
possessions are gifts from God and makes one more keenly aware 
of the virtues of devotion to God. Zakat is a reminder that a selfish 
stance is a wrong stance, and that others must be given their rightful 
share from our earnings. God chooses whom to make rich or poor. 
The wealthy are obliged to give to the poor. Only by giving something 
away for the sake of God will one appreciate its true value. Society 
should be so ordered that those fortunately placed in life should 



30 




come to the assistance of the less fortunate. Such a society, in short, 
is a haven of contentment and well-being. 

Nisab 

Nisab is defined as the minimum amount of capital or wealth 
such as gold, silver, minerals, treasures, crops, fruits, cattle and 
articles of merchandise, below which zakat is not applicable. In 
order to come within the purview of zakat, one must possess property 
or capital in excess of this minimum exemption limit for a whole 
year. 

The nisab is normally expressed in terms of quantities of two 
metals, i.e., gold and silver and not in terms of the value in any 
currency. For the sake of convenience, the prescribed quantities of 
the specified quality of gold or silver are to be worked out at 
prevailing prices to determine the minimum amount which attracts 
the provision of zakat. However, nisab for agricultural produce and 
domestic cattle (not for sale) is different. The ownership of wealth 
for a period of less than a lunar year does not attract the provisions 
of zakat. This condition is not applicable in the case of agricultural 
produce, where it is due immediately after each harvest. 

Zakat is considered 
as a form of worship, 
which is expressed 
through the distribution of 
material wealth. Zakat is 
mandatory on all those 
Muslims who have 
surplus wealth exceeding 
a specified limit. The 
offering of zakat pleases 
Allah immensely. It leads 
to self-purification of 



31 



those who pay zakat; they receive manifold rewards from Allah 
both in this world and in the Hereafter. There are serious warnings 
to the defaulters in payment of zakat both in the Holy Quran and 
the sayings of the prophet. 

The assets on which zakat is due 

The Prophet Muhammad laid down the following items upon 
which zakat is applicable. 


Gold and silver 
Cash 

Stock in trade, i.e. items for sale 
Agricultural produce 
Domestic cattle (specified) 

Minerals and treasures 

There are some items of household use on which there is no 
zakat, unless they are made of gold or silver. These are: 

a) Kitchenware, cutlery, crockery, furniture, fixtures, 
fittings, sanitaryware, etc. 

b) All types of vehicles for own use or for 
commercial use 

c) Houses/flats for own use or for the purpose of 
letting out 

d) Land and plots not for sale. 



32 


Rate of Zakat 


The rate of zakat is common for all assets valued in cash, except 
agricultural produce, cattle and minerals. It is 2.5% (one fortieth 
part) of the total cash- value of prescribed assets. 

When the value of the qualifying assets is equal to or more 
than the prescribed nisab, zakat is assessed taking the whole value 
into account. 


Gold: Standard 24 carat is taken into account for the purpose 
of zakat. The nisab in the case of gold is laid down at 87.300 gram. 


The equivalent quantity of 22 
carat gold works out to 95.236 
gm. 

Silver: For the purpose of 
zakat, silver of 99% purity is 
taken as standard. The nisab of 
silver is fixed at 6 1 1 . 1 00 gram. 

Cash: Cash held in banks, 
financial institutions and 
contributory funds attract zakat, 



The following should be considered as cash. 


a) Currency of any denomination and country 
provided it is legal tender. 

b) Cash in banks or financial institutions 

c) Equity shares, debentures, investment certificates, 
negotiable instruments like promisary notes, bills 
of exchange, banker’s cheques, mutual funds or 
any such instruments as can be converted into 
cash. 


33 



Agricultural Produce 

Zakat is applicable to all kinds of grains and fruits which can be 
stored and preserved like wheat, paddy, pulses, dates, figs, etc. 
Agricultural produce obtained from free irrigation by natural means 
like rains, rivers, lakes, etc., are taxed at the rate of 10% of the total 
marketable produce. On account of this rate, zakat on agricultural 
produce is commonly referred to as ushr, meaning a tenth in Arabic. 
In the ease of agricultural produce obtained by artificial means of 
irrigation for which the farmers has to incur expenditure for digging 
wells, installation of pumps and payments of irrigation cess, etc. the 
rate of zakat is fixed at 5% of the total produce. 

The Spirit of Zakat 

Zakat is the fourth ‘pillar’ of Islam. Zakat means setting apart 
for God every year a certain portion of one’s savings and wealth 


34 


(generally 2.5 percent) and spending it upon religious duties and on 
needy members of the community. The fulfilment of this duty is, in 
fact, a kind of reminder that all one has is in trust from God. Man 
should, therefore, hold nothing back from God. To whatever one 
may amass in one’s lifetime, one’s own personal contribution is 
insignificant. If the Supreme Being, who is at work in the heavens 
and on the earth, refused to co-operate with man, there would be 
nothing that the latter could accomplish single-handedly. He would 
not be able to plant so much as a single seed to make things grow. 
Nor could he set up any industry, or carry out any other such 
enterprise. If God were to withdraw from us His material blessings, 
all our plans would go awry, and all our efforts would be brought to 
naught. 

Zakat is the practical recognition of this fact through the 
expenditure of money for the cause of God. Islam requires man to 
consider his personal wealth as belonging to God and, therefore, to 
set apart a portion for Him. No maximum limit has been prescribed, 
but a minimum limit has definitely been fixed. According to statutory 
zakat , each individual must abide by this and spend a fixed minimum 
percentage of his wealth every year in the way prescribed by God. 
While spending from his wealth, he is permitted neither to belittle 
the recipient nor to make him feel obliged or grateful to himself. His 
wealth must be given to the needy in the spirit of it being a trust 
from God, which he is making over to the genuine titleholders. He 
should feed others so that he himself is fed in the Hereafter, and he 
should give to others so that he himself is not denied succour by 
God in the next world. 

Zakat is a symbol of 
one’s duty to recognize 
the rights of others and 
have sympathy with them 
in pain or sorrow. These 



35 


sentiments should become so deep-rooted that one should begin to 
regard one’s own wealth as belonging, in part, to others. Moreover, 
one should render service to others without expecting either 
recognition or recompense. Each individual should protect the 
honour of others without hope of any gain in return. He should be 
the well-wisher of not just friends and relations, but of all members 
of society. Zakat, first and foremost, makes it plain to people that 
their entire ‘possessions’ are gifts of God, and, secondly, dissuades 
the servants of God from living in society as unfeeling and selfish 
creatures. Indeed, throughout their entire lives, they must set aside 
some portion for others. 

We must serve our fellow human beings only in the hope of 
receiving a reward from God. We must give to others with the divine 
assurance that we will be repaid in full in the next world. In a society 
where there is no exploitation, feelings of mutual hatred and 
unconcern cannot flourish. A climate of mutual distrust and disorder 
is simply not allowed to come into being; each person lives in peace 
with another, and society becomes a model of harmony and 
prosperity. 

On the legal plane, zakat is an annual tax, or duty; in essence 
and spirit, it is recognition on the part of man of the share which 
God, and other men, have in his wealth. 

(The article, “The Spirit of Zakat” is gleaned from the book, Islam As It Is by 
Maulana Wahiduddin Khan) 



36 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 

a. The word zakat means to . (clarify / purify) 

b. We pay zakat • (yearly / two-yearly) 

c. The rate of zakat is of the total cash value of the 

prescribed assets. (2.5% / 5.5%). 

d. The minimum capital on which zakat becomes due is called . 

(nisab / hisab) 

e. Zakat is mandatory on all those Muslims who have • 

(surplus wealth / wealth) 

f. Giving something away for the sake of will one appreciate 

its rue value. (Allah / Society) 


2. True or False 

a. Zakat is not obligatory on Muslims. 

b. Nisab is expressed in terms of the quantity of gold or silver. 

c. Zakat purifies our wealth. 

d. There is no zakat on minerals and treasures. 

e. Agricultural produce obtained by natural means of irrigation attracts a 
zakat of 10%. 


3. Answer the following questions 

a. Discuss zakat and how it purifies our assets. 

b. Define nisab. 

c. List the items on which zakat is due. 

d. What do you understand by the ‘rate of zakat ' ? 

4. There should be a class discussion on Zakat and how it can tackle the 
problem of poverty in the society. After the discussion every student should 
write what they understand from it. 


37 


Chapter 6 




Hajj is the fifth 
pillar of Islam. It is the 
pilgrimage to Makkah 
made between the 8th 
and 13th of dhulhijjah, 
the twelvth month of the 
Muslim lunar calendar. If 
a Muslim goes on the 
pilgrimage to Makkah at 
any other time, it is 
known as Umrah, or the 
lesser pilgrimage, and 
the significance is not the 
same as hajj. Hajj is compulsory for all adult Muslims who have the 
wherewithal and good health to undertake the journey. 


The most important moment celebrated in hajj is the occasion 
when the loyalty of the Prophet Ibrahim *£j$ was put to the test by 
Allah. The Prophet Ibrahim $ passed the test and Allah called him 
Ibrahim Khalilullah, the friend of Allah. 


The hajj rituals include circumambulations or tawaf around 
the Kabah, the wearing of ihram, walking seven times between 
the hills of Safa and Marwa, the casting of pebbles at the 



stone devils, standing at the 
mount of Mercy or Jabal ar 
Rahmah. There are many 
other rituals which are the 
sunnah or tradition of the 
Prophet Muhammad 


38 



The experience of hajj performed 
in the midst of hundreds of thousands 
of people gives one a unique spiritual 
feeling. When the words of the talbiyah 
are recited by the pilgrims clad in 
ihram, a unique humbling experience 
is felt by them, which leaves many of 
them shedding tears of joy on being 
physically present there, ready to 
answer the call of Allah. 


Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik 
Labbaik Lashirka Laka Labbaik 
Innal Hamda wanni matalaka wal mulka 
La Sharika Laka. 


The English translations of the words of the talbiyah are: 




“I respond to Your call and 
I am obedient to Your orders. 

O Allah, Here I am! 

O Allah, I respond to Your call and 
I am obedient to Your orders. 

You have no partner, I respond to Your call. 
All sovereignty is Yours. 

And You have no partners with you. ” 


J 


39 


The Elements of Hajj 

Hajj has four basic constituents: 

1. assuming the state of ihram, i.e., wrapping 
oneself up in two sheets of unstitched cloth, 

2. presenting oneself on the plains of ‘Arafah, 

3. tawaf al-ifadah (circumambulation of the Kabah 
on the Day of Sacrifice), 

4. as-sa’y (walking at a brisk pace or running 
between the mountains of Safa and Marwah in 
Makkah). 

Ihram with due intention: 

The pilgrim puts aside his normal clothes and wraps himself 
up in two unstitched sheets and thus assumes the garb of piety. 
(Ihram for women, however, consists of their covering the entire 
body except the face.) Having thus wrapped himself up in two sheets 
of cloth, the pilgrim affirms his intention thus: 


I affirm my intention to undertake the pilgrimage 
and deny myself all the things forbidden 
during these observances, for the sake of Allah. * 

■J 

He then offers two rak’ahs of salat and •* 
addresses Allah thus: $ 

Here I am, O Allah, to do my pilgrimage. ^ 

M 


40 


The ihram has to be put on before the pilgrim crosses the miqat 
(a point fixed at a certain distance on each of the roads leading to 
Makkah). 

Ihram, which is just two sheets of unstitched white cloth, one 
wrapped around the waist, and the other over the left shoulder, 
symbolizes equality, single mindedness and self-sacrifice. The idea 
of all men living on earth as God’s servants, and therefore as equals, 
is expressed in the wearing of ihram. In this way all artificial, 
discriminatory barriers are broken down between people from all 
walks of life. 

Wuquf (standing or halting) at ‘Arafah: 

The pilgrim has to halt on the plains of ‘Arafah all or part of 
the day and night beginning on the 9th of Dhu’l-Hijjah, after the 
sun begins to decline, before noon, until dawn on the 10th of the 
month. The pilgrim, during this period, has to engage himself in 
reciting the formula affirming his readiness to respond to Allah’s 
call for hajj and expressing his humility before Allah in terms 
appropriate to the solemn occasion. 



41 


Tawaf al-Ifadah 

This is an obligatory ritual in which the pilgrim makes seven 
circuits of the Kabah after returning from the plains of ‘Arafah, and 
remembers Allah (may He be glorified) in appropriate terms. 

As-Sa’y between Safa and Marwah: 

This ritual entails the pilgrim 
going at a fast pace to cover the 
distance between Safa and Marwah 
seven times. While doing so, he 
remembers a similar coming and 
going undertaken by the mother of 
the young Isma’il *£% in quest of 
food and drink for her baby. 

In case any one of the basic 
rituals mentioned above is 
neglected or left out, the pilgrimage 
will be deemed not to have taken 
place. 

Halting at Muzdalifah 

Muzdalifah lies between Mina and ‘Arafah. Pilgrims offer the 
shortened combined prayers of maghrib and ‘is ha after the afternoon 
crimson on the horizon has vanished. They do it on the eve of the 
Feast of Sacrifice. They also perform their fajr (early-morning) prayer 
at this holy place, then set out for Mina before sunrise, in due humility 
and remembrance of Allah. 

Stoning the Pillars ( ramyu al-jimar ) 

Throwing pebbles at the Pillars is the symbolic disavowal of 



42 


the Evil One from the bottom of 
one’s heart at a place where Satan 
had appeared to the Prophet 
Ibrahim in order to deflect him 

from his determination to 
sacrifice his son Isma’il in 
obedience to the command of 
Allah. The pilgrim begins by 
throwing seven pebbles at jamrat 
al- ‘aqabah. 

Shaving the hair or shortening it 

The pilgrim has to either completely shave off or shorten the hair 
on his head, after having thrown the pebbles at the largest of the three 
stone pillars on the Day of Sacrifice. This accomplished, the pilgrim 
comes out of the state of ihram and all things lawful in ordinary life 
become permissible for him except the sexual act. 

‘Umrah (the Lesser Pilgrimage) 

Performing ‘umrah is one of the important precepts of the Prophet 
#. It comprises four observances namely, (i) ihram, (ii) 
circumambulation (circling round the House), (iii) running ( sa’y ) 
between Safa and Marwah (iv) shaving/shortening the hair. 

It must be pointed out here that each ritual connected with the 
pilgrimage needs a detailed discussion, as there are certain prophetic 
traditions and practices as well as formulas for supplication to Allah 
and remembrance of Him which can be studied in specialized books 
on religious observances in Islam. 

Things forbidden during ihram 

It is not allowed for a person in a state of ihram, be it for hajj 



43 


or ‘umrah, to put on stitched clothes or use cosmetics or other means 
of adornment for the body or indulge in hunting or go to women 
until he has shaved off his hair or shortened it. There are a number 
of other commandments for both men and women in this regard, 
some of which are given below: 

A man, for example, is not allowed to cover any part of his 
head or put on any clothes other than the two unstitched sheets, one 
for the upper part and the other for the lower part of the body. He is 
also not allowed to use perfume or trim his nails or cut any part of 
his hair. The sexual act is also forbidden for him. 

A woman, on the other hand, will be deemed to have entered 
the state of ihram only if she covers her entire body (and head) 
except the face. Her ihram, thus, comprises the uncovering of her 
face. She is also forbidden to use any cosmetics, etc. as long as she 
is in a state of ihram. 

A person turns an unbeliever under Islamic law if he (i) denies 
the obligatory nature of hajj (ii) ridicules the rituals and observances 
connected with hajj (iii) either inveighs against the House of Allah 
or tries to degrade it in people’s esteem or seeks to defile and 
desecrate it with the intention of belittling its importance. 



44 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 

— _ — . — . — ' 

a. Hajj is performed between (8 th to 13 th / 9' h to 13 th Dhulhijjah). 

b. Hajj is compulsory for all (adult / aged muslims). 

c. The prophet Ibrahim passed the test and Allah called him (khalilullah 

/ kalimullah). 

d. Innal Hamda wanni matalaka (wal mulka/ labbaik). 

e. The pilgrim has to halt on the plains of the day and night beginning on the 

(9 th / 10 th of Dhu’l-Hijjah). 

2. True or False 

a. Sa’y is walking briskly between Safah and Mawah. 

b. Ihram consists of four sheets of unstitched white cloth. 

c. The talbiyah is recited during salah. 

d. Standing on the plains of Arafat is called wuquf. 

e. Muzdalifah lies midway between Mina and Arafah. 


3. Match the Columns 

Column B 

The son of the Prophet Ibrahim 
The 1 2th month of the Muslim lunar calendar 
The circumambulation of the Kabah on returning 
from Arafah. 

The hills near the Kabah. 

The Stoning pillars. 

4. Answer the following questions 

a. What is hajjl 

b. Write down the words of the talbiyah. 

c. What are the constituents of hajjl 

d. What are the things forbidden during hajjl 

e. What is umrahl 

5. The class should be divided into four groups and discuss the significance of Hajj 
and how every act of it’s highlights the basic teachings of Islam. Every group 
should write its views and read it out in the class. 


Column A 

Tawaf al-ifadah 
Safa and Marwah 
Dhulhijjah 

Jamarat al-aqabah 
The Propeht Ismail $$ 


45 


Chapter 7 


A Compiler of Hadith 


Imam Malik 



Imam Malik Ibn Anas, whose 
ancestors originally came from Yemen, 
was born in Madinah in the year 715 
CE. Imam Malik is regarded as one of 
those great scholars of hadith whose 
interpretation of the Quran and the 
Sunnah form the basis of the laws 
known as fiq, or school of thought, 
in Islam. Apart from the fiq of 
Imam Malik, there are three other 
fiqs in Islam which are 
known as Hanbali fiq, 

Shaafi fiq and Hanafi 
fiq. Imam Malik was a 
taebeen — he had met 
some of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad # and learnt 
ahadith directly from them. 


Imam Malik received his education in Madinah, which was 
then the most important seat of learning. Imam Malik was highly 
attracted to the study of law and devoted his entire life to the study 
of fiqh. He acquired his knowledge of the Prophet’s sayings from 
the Sahaba. 

Among Imam Malik’s writings is the great work entitled Kitab 
al-Muwatta, which is the earliest surviving book of Islamic law 
and hadith. It contains the sayings as well as the practices of the 
Holy Prophet # as observed by his Companions in Madinah. 


46 




Al-Muwatta, which means 
‘the approved’, is acknow- 
ledged as the most important 
among Imam Malik’s writings. 
It is reported that Malik showed 
his book to seventy jurists of 
Madinah and every single one 
of them approved of it, so he 
named it al-Muwatta (the 
approved). About al-Muwatta, 
Shah Wali Allah said that it was 
the principal authority of all 
four schools of law. 



Imam Malik held the 
hadith of the Prophet 
Muhammad # in such reverence that he never narrated anything 
nor gave a fatwa without first performing his ablutions. Imam Malik 
was famous for his piety and integrity and he courageously stood up 
for his convictions and was prepared to suffer for them. Imam Malik 
was publicly flogged by the governor of Madinah for refusing to 
take the oath of allegiance to the Caliph al-Mansour on a matter 
which was based on a false hadith. However, when al-Mansour learnt 
of this outrage, he apologized to the Imam and dismissed the 
governor. 


Later when Caliph Haroun al-Rasheed visited Madinah at the 
time of hajj, he summoned Imam Malik to visit and deliver a lecture. 
Imam Malik refused to go to the ruler and instead invited him to 
attend the class in which he delivered regular lectures. The Caliph 
accepted the invitation and, accompanied by his two sons, sat among 
the students to hear the Imam’s lecture. 


Imam Malik died in the year 795 C.E. at Madinah and was buried 
in the cemetery of al Baqie in Madinah. 


47 


Some Ahadith from al-Muwatta 


Malik related to me from Zayd ibn Aslam that 
- the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace, said, “ Give to a beggar even if 
he comes on a horse. ” 


Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from 
Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said 
from the mimbar when mentioning sadaqa and 
refraining from asking, “ The upper hand is 
better than the lower hand. The upper hand is 
the one which expends, and the lower one is the 
one which asks. ” 


4 

4 

J| 

qf 

| 

J 

A 

I 

? 

j 


Malik related to me from al-Walid ibn Abdullah 
ibn Sayyad that al-Muttalib ibn Abdullah ibn 
Hantab al-Makhzumi informed him that a man 
asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless 
him and grant him peace, “What is backbiting?’ 
The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace, said, “It is to mention 
about a man what he does not want to hear. ” He 
said, “Messenger of Allah! Even if it is true?” I 
The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace, said, “If you utter A 
something false, then it is slander. ” | 


J 


iImMi 


48 




I 

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab j 
from Ali ibn Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib that the : 
— Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and 

grant him peace, said, “Part of the excellence of 
a man ’s Islam is that he leaves what does not 
concern him. ” 

1 ■- ^ mtrnm — if 


Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard r 
- that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him j, 
and grant him peace, said, “I was sent to perfect \ 
good character. ” 


Yahya related to me from Malik from Salama ibn 
Safwan ibn Salama az-Zuraqi that Zayd ibn 
Talha ibn Rukana, who attributed it to the } 
Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, said, “The Messenger of Allah, May Allah j 
bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Every deen 4 
has an innate character. The character of Islam \ 
is modesty. j 

-- ■ * - 1 - ~ n ■— * 


Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab 
from Ata ibn Yazid al-Laythi from Abu Ayyub al- 
Ansari that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is not 
halal for a Muslim to shun his brother for more 
than three nights, that is they meet, and this one 
turns away and that one turns away. 

The better of the two is the one who 
says the greeting first. ” 


4 


J 


49 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 


a. 

b. 

c. 

d. 

e. 


(Makkah / Madinah) 


Imam Malik delivered his regular lectures at 

About Al-Muwatta, said that it was principal authority of all 

four schools of law. (Shah Wali Allah / Imam malik) 

The Prophet Muhammad said, “Give to a beggar even if he comes 

(of full hands / on a horse) 

The Prophet Muhammad said, “ Part of the excellence of a man’s Islam is that he 
leaves what (does not concern him / is not in Islam) 

The Prophet Muhammad said, “Every deen has an innate character. The character 
of islam is (honesty / modesty) 


2. True or False 


a. 

b. 

c. 

d. 


The book of hadith which Imam Malik compiled was known as Al-Mawattah. 
Imam Malik’s ancestors came from Iraq. 

Imam Malik is buried in Makkah. 

Tabaeen were those who had met the companions of the Prophet Muhammad 
and learnt ahadith directly from them. 


3. Match the Columns 
Column A 

The birth of Imam Malik 
Haroun al-Rasheed 
Al-Muwatta 
Fiq 


Column B 

A school of thought 
715 CE 

An Abbasid Caliph 

Ahadith book compiled by Imam Malik 


f 


4. Answer the following questions 


a. 

b. 

c. 


5. 


6. 


When and where was Imam Malik bom? 

Name the four schools of thought or fiqs in Islam. 

Which famous caliph attended along with his sons the lecture of Imam Malik in 
Madinah? 

Divide the class in seven groups and ask them to discuss one hadith each which are 
mentioned in the chapter. After the discussion a student from each group should read out 
the report written by their group. 

The teacher should give a theme to each student like love, discipline, friendship and ask 
students to collect three hadiths each and next day they should share it with the class. 


50 


Chapter 8 


The Story of the Prophet 
Isa 



The Prophet Isa Jo? or Jesus 

The Prophet Isa £&, a prophet of Allah, was born without a father 
by a miracle of Allah. He was the son of Maryam, or Mary, a pious 
devoted lady described as a virtuous woman in the Quran. The birth 
of the Prophet Isa f was a miracle and a sign of Allah’s power. 
However, it was no more miraculous than the creation of the 


51 



Prophet Adam and Eve, who had neither father nor mother. Allah 
creates whatever He wants; if He wills something, He has only to 
say, “Be,” and it is. 

The Quran tells us about Maryam, the mother of the Prophet Isa 
Jsu. She is honoured in the Quran and referred to as a chaste woman, 

a servant of Allah, chosen by 
Allah, purified and raised as a 
righteous and pious women. 
The Quran mentions that when 
Maryam was born, her mother 
dedicated her to the service of 
Allah. Allah graciously 
accepted her and made her 
grow in purity and beauty and 
gave her into the care of the 
prophet Zakariya who was 
an old man and childless at that time. Later, the Prophet Zakariya 
prayed to Allah to grant him a child and Allah accepted his prayer 
and Yahya ^ was born to him, despite his wife being barren. 

Maryam was a humble and devoted servant of Allah. This is 
stressed in the Quran when Maryam is ordered to worship Allah, to 
pray to Him, and prostrate herself before Him. 

The Quran says: “Behold! The angels said: O Mary! God has 
chosen you and purified you — and exalted you above the women of 
all nations. O Mary! Worship your Lord devoutly: Prostrate yourself, 
and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down.” ( Surah al- 
Imran, 3:42) 

When Maryam grew up, Allah sent an angel to her who said: 
“Nay, I am only a messenger from your Lord, to announce to you the 
gift of a holy son.” Maryam said in disbelief: “How shall I have a son, 
seeing that no man has touched me, and I am not unchaste?” The 



52 


Angel replied, “So it will be, says your Lord, ‘that is easy for Me. 
And We wish to appoint him as a sign unto men and a mercy from 
Us.” 

And so Maryam conceived and then retired to a remote place to 
suffer the pangs of childbirth and deliver her child all alone. Allah 
performed a miracle and provided her with a rivulet near her, and a 
palm tree with fresh ripe dates on it. 



When Maryam brought her child to her people, they were 
amazed and said, ‘O sister of Aaron, your father was not an evil 
man, nor was your mother unchaste.’ Helplessly, Maryam pointed 
to her child, the infant Isa £&, who said, “I am indeed a servant of 
God: He has given me Revelation and made me a prophet. And He 
has made me blessed wheresoever I may be, and has enjoined on me 
prayer and charity as long as I live. He hath made me kind to my 
mother and not overbearing or miserable. So peace is on me the day 
I was born, the day that I die and the day that I shall be raised up to 
life (again).” (Surah Maryam 19:27-30). 


53 


This was a sheer miracle - an infant speaking to the people — 
but this was the promise Allah made to Maryam when He sent the 
Angel Jibril to announce to her the birth of Prophet Isa $$. 
According to the Quran, the Angel Jibril (Gabriel) said: “He shall 
speak to the people in childhood and in maturity and he shall be (of 
the company) of the righteous.” 

Allah taught the Prophet Isa ph the Book and Wisdom and the 
Law and the Gospel. The Prophet Isa ^ preached his people to 
have true faith in Allah, the One and Only, and in His messengers 
and in His Holy Books, which He revealed to His prophets. 



and what you store in your 
if did believe.” 


Allah told the Prophet Isa to 
announce to his people: “I have come 
to you with a sign from your Lord, in 
that I make for you out of clay, as it were, 
the figure of a bird and breathe into it, 
and it becomes a bird by God’s leave: 
and I heal those born blind, and the 
lepers and I quicken the dead by God’s 
leave, and I declare to you what you eat 
houses. Surely therein is a sign for you 


The Prophet Isa confirmed the previous Holy books of Allah 
revealed to the prophets Ibrahim £&, Musa and Dawud He 
taught people: “It is Allah who is my Lord and your Lord; then 
worship Him. This is a way that is straight.” 

The Prophet Isa $$ , the son of Maryam, was a prophet of Allah, 
and this was the message which the Prophet Isa ^ taught his people 
to believe in. But the people differed among themselves and believed 
that the Prophet Isa 0 was the son of Allah. The Quran is replete 
with commands from Allah mentioning that Allah is the One and 
Only: it does not befit the Majesty of Allah that He should beget a 


54 


son. When Allah has to create anything, He only says: ‘Be’ and it is. 
Allah says in the Quran: 

“Jesus is like Adam in the sight of God. j 
He created him of dust, then He said unto him. f 
‘Be, ’ and he was. ” (Surah 3: verse 59). Jl 


The Quran says that the Prophet Isa the son of Maryam was 
only a messenger of Allah. He was no more than an apostle. Many 
were the apostles that passed away before him. Allah says: “He (The 
Prophet Isa £&) is nothing but a slave on whom we bestowed favour, 
and we made him an example for the children of Israel.” (Surah 
43:59). 

Allah made Maryam (or Mary) and her son, the Prophet Isa 
a sign for all people. 

Allah sent the Prophet Isa with clear signs of His sovereignty. 
The Quran says: “When Isa came with clear signs, he said: Now 
have I come to you with wisdom, and in order to make clear to you 
some of the points on which you dispute: therefore fear God and 
obey me.” 

Allah denies in the Quran that the Prophet Isa was crucified. 
In fact Allah raised the Prophet Isa to Himself. The Quran says: 


“They declared: ‘We killed Christ Jesus, the son of 
Mary, the apostle of God’ — But they neither killed, 
nor crucified him. But so it was made to 
appear to them.... Indeed no, God raised him 
up to Himself, and God is Exalted in 
Power and Wise. ” (Surah an-Nisa, 4:157-58). 


J 

J 


J 

| 

* 


Allah also says in the Quran that the Prophet Isa will be sent 
back to the earth on the Last Day just before the Resurrection, when 


55 


he will destroy the false doctrine, that spread in his name and prepare 
the way for the universal acceptance of Islam. 

The Quran says, “And (Isa) shall be a sign (for the coming of) 
the Hour (of judgement): therefore have no doubt about the Hour, 
but follow you Me: this is a straight way.” (Surah Az-Zukhruf 43:6 1 ) 

The Prophet Isa ^ all his life preached Islam to people, told 
them to follow the scriptures which were sent before him and the 
Book which had been revealed to him by God. The Prophet Isa ^ 
also prophesied the coming of the Prophet Muhammad £ui, the last 
Prophet of Allah. The Quran says: “And remember, Isa, the son of 
Maryam, said: O Children of Israel, I am the apostle of God (sent) to 
you confirming the law (which came) before me, and giving glad 
tidings of an apostle to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad.” 
(Surah As-saff, 61:6) 



56 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 

V ..... . > 

a. Maryam was given in care of the prophet . (Zakariya £&/ 

Yahya Jm) 

b. Prophet Isa said, “I am indeed a of God. (servant / 

messenger) 

c. Prophet Isa ^ said with God’s leave I declare to you what you eat and 

what you . (have in your hearts / store in your houses.) 

d. Prophet Isa gave glad tidings of an apostle to come after me whose 

name shall be . (Muhammad / Ahmad) 

2. True or False 

a. The Prophet Isa was born without a father. 

b. Maryam was the aunt of the Prophet Isa $$. 

c. The Prophet Isa prophesied the coming of the Prophet Muhammad #. 

d. Allah did not raise the Prophet Isa ^ to Himself. 


3. Match the Columns 


Column A 

The Prophet Zakariya 
The Bible 

Jibril 

The Prophet Adam $$ 
The Prophet Isa $$ 


Column B 

The book of Allah revealed to the Prophet Isa 
An angel of Allah who brought revelation to the 
prophets. 

A prophet of Allah asigned to take care of the 
Maryam (or Mary). 

The Prophet who will be raised up to life again. 
The first prophet of Allah born without a father 
and a mother. 


( — — = — v 

4. Answer the following questions 

a. Explain how the Prophet Isa’s life was full of miracles and a sign of 
Allah’s power. 

b. Who was Maryam? What did her mother do when Maryam was born? 

c. Who was the Prophet Zakariya $ and what did he pray to Allah? 

d. What was the message which the Prophet Isa spread? Discuss how it 
continues in the teachings of Islam. 


57 



Chapter 9 


The Conquest of Makkah 



When the treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed in the 6 th year of 
the Arabic hijra between the Prophet Muhammad # and the Quraysh, 
certain tribes came under the protection of the Muslims, while the 
others sided with the Quraysh. It was decided that no tribes would 
attack each other or fight with one another. Exactly one year after 
the treaty, the Prophet ^ and his Companions came to Makkah to 
perform umrah. As per the treaty, the Quraysh vacated the city and 
the Muslims performed the umrah peacefully. One of the results of 
the treaty of Hudaybiyyah was that the relations between the Quraysh 
and the Muslims became peaceful, which gave the Muslims a much- 
needed respite and the freedom to reach out to more and more people 
to present Islam to them. The Quraysh and others also reflected on 
the happenings since the proclamation of Islam by the Prophet #. 
The more they thought, the more they became convinced about the 
authenticity of the call of the Prophet #. When the Muslims were 


58 





performing umrah, the Quraysh watched them from the hilltop and 
were awestruck at the simplicity and dignity of their way of 
performing umrah. Besides this, the teachings of Islam to shun all 
vices and immoral behaviour, and its emphasis on honesty, and 
righteous behaviour did have an impact on the Quraysh. As a result, 
a few of the prominent Makkans like Khalid ibn al-Walid, Amr ibn 
al-As and the guardian of the Kabah, Uthman ibn Talhah, embraced 
Islam, followed by a large number of people from Makkah. The 
Muslims grew stronger day by day, whereas fear and weakness crept 
into the ranks of the Quraysh. 

In the 8 th year of the Arabic Hijra , in clear violation of the 
Hudaybiyyah treaty, the Quraysh incited their ally, the tribe of the 
Banu Bakr, to attack the Muslims’ ally, the tribe of Khuzaah. In a 
surprise attack on the tribe of Khuzaah by the Banu Bakr with arms 
supplied by the Quraysh, a number of men from the Khuzaah tribe 
were killed. When the news of this flagrant breach of the treaty reached 
the Prophet #, he sent word to the Quraysh that either they should 
pay compensation for the murders or that they should withdraw 



59 



their support from the Banu Bakr. If not, they should withdraw from 
the treaty. The Quraysh replied that they held the treaty null and 
void. On hearing this, the Prophet # decided to conquer Makkah. 
He sent word to the Muslims all over the peninsula to mobilize at 
once. 


Meanwhile, the Muslim army proceeded to Makkah under the 
command of the Prophet Muhammad whose aim was to conquer 
the city without any bloodshed. This army had more men than 
Madinah had ever seen before. So many Muslim tribes had joined in 
such great numbers and with such armaments that the wide expanse 
of the desert was filled with them. They moved fast, and at every 
stop, many more tribes joined their ranks and added to their 
armaments and equipment. Every soul was filled with the faith of 
Islam and entertained no doubt that Allah’s help would bring them 
victory. 

The Muslims reached al-Zahran, four miles from Makkah, where 
the Prophet # decided to camp for some time. Meanwhile Abbas 
Ibn Abdul-Muttalib, an uncle of the Prophet # and a non-Muslim 
living in Makkah, took all the members of his family, and went out 
in the direction of Madinah and met the Prophet at al-Juhfah and 
converted to Islam. A1 Abbas saw that the Muslim armies were so 


60 


great in number that the Quraysh would be no match for them. He 
became apprehensive of the fate of the Quraysh people and asked 
the Prophet !§£ what the Prophet would do in case the Quraysh 
asked for a guarantee of its own security. The Prophet, keen on 
preventing any bloodshed, urged him to tell the Makkans that they 
should reconcile themselves to the Muslims before they took Makkah 
by storm. 

A1 Abbas rode on the Prophet’s ^ white mule and went towards 
Makkah. He met Abu Sufiyan on the way and brought him to the 
Muslim camp. Since Abu Sufiyan was on the prophet’s ■£§£ mule, 
nobody did him any harm. Faced with the threat of death, Abu Sufiyan 
converted to Islam. The Prophet announced that whoever laid 
down his arms, sought refuge in Abu Sufiyan’s house, or stayed 
indoors, or entered the Mosque would be secure. 

The Muslims thus entered and occupied Makkah without any 
opposition; only the front assigned to Khalid Ibn al-Walid put up 
any resistance. This area was populated by the most hostile and 
antagonistic members of the Quraysh. Many of them were the 
attackers of Khuzaah tribe. When Khalid’s army entered their quarter, 
they showered it with arrows. Khalid, however, quickly dispersed 
them losing two of his men, but killing thirteen of them. 

The Prophet £=$ praised Allah and thanked Him for the conquest 
of Makkah. He then camped on a height opposite the mountain of 
Hind. The Prophet ^ was moved by the sight of Makkah, he rode 
towards the Kabah on his she-camel, al Qaswa, and circumbulated 
the Kabah without dismounting. He then called upon Uthman Ibn 
Talhah to open the Kabah for him. All idols kept in the Kabah were 
destroyed. The Holy Prophet prayed inside the Kabah. Thereafter, 
he thus addressed the people of Makkah: 

“There is no deity but God. He has no associate. He has fulfilled 
His promise, He has helped His servant and has, by Himself, broken 


61 


up all groups, Yes, all vanity, all revenge, old demands for blood- 
revenge, all blood moneys — these are all now trampled under my 
feet. The only exceptions are the continued trusteeship of Harame- 
Kabah and the provision of water for the Hajis. O Quraysh! Allah 
has destroyed (for good) the vain notions, and the pride of heritage 
of the days of jaahilya. All are children of Adam and Adam was 
created from dust.” 

After that the prophet recited from the Quran: 

“O Men! We have created you from male and female 
and constituted you into peoples and tribes that you 
might know and cooperate with one another. 

In the eye of God, the highest among you is the 
most virtuous. God is omniscient and all powerful. 

. — »■ - J 

He then asked the Quraysh: “O men of the Quraysh, what do 
you think I am about to do with you?” 

“All that is good,” they answered, “for you are a noble brother 
and a noble nephew of ours.” 

The Prophet # then said: “Rise, then, and go. For you are free.” 


i 



62 



EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 

a. The treaty of Hudaibiyyah was signed in the . 

(4th year of the Arabic hijra / 6th year of the Arabic hijra ) 

b. The Muslims camped at during their march to Makkah. 

(Zahran / Abwa) 

c. The Quraysh sent to Madinah to talk to the Prophet #. 

(Abu Sufian / Ikrimah) 

d. Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib converted to Islam the conquest of 

Makkah. (before/after) 

e. Allah has destroyed(for good) the vain nations, and the pride of heritage 

of the days of , (jaahliya / quraish) 

f. In the eye of God, the highest among you is the , (most 

high in rank / most virtuous). 

2. True or False 

a. After the treaty of Hudaybiyyah, the Khuzaah tribe came under the 
protection of the Makkans. 

b. The Banu Bakr tribe killed the men of the tribe of Khuzaah. 

c. The Prophet # wanted to conquer the city of Makkah without any 
bloodshed. 

d. Khalid Ibn Walid was the commander of one section of the Muslim army 
which entered the city at the conquest of Makkah. 

e. The Prophet # announced a general amnesty to the people of Makkah 
after the conquest of the city. 

3. Answer the following questions 

'A. - 

a. Write briefly about the treaty of Hudaybiyyah. 

b. Write briefly about the result of the treaty of Hudaybiyyah. 

c. Who violated the treaty of Hudaybiyyah? 

d. Describe briefly the conquest of Makkah by the Prophet 

4. A class discussion should take place on the address of the Prophet 
Muhammad # to the people of Makkah. Highlight how it summarizes 
Islamic teachings and defines the path in future to be taken by Muslims. 


63 


Chapter 10 


Islamic Society 



The Rights of the Orphan 


The Quran says: “Do not oppress the orphan.” (Surah 93:9). 
Allah has commanded all Muslims to treat the orphan with love and 
affection. Orphans need our special care and attention. We need to 
give them our best help and support so that they may not end up 
being exploited. There is a saying of the last prophet of Allah, 
Muhammad ‘Even passing a hand over the head of an orphan 
with love and affection is an act of charity.’ 

The Quran is full of injunctions on the fair treatment of the 
orphan. On innumerable occasions the Quran has exhorted Muslims 
to take great care of the orphans in society, and especially if an orphan 
is one of their own relatives. Then it becomes the moral and religious 
duty of every member of the family in question to take care of him. 


64 



The Quran says in surah 9: verses 14-15: “Those whom Allah 
loves, give food on a day of privation to the orphan with claims of 
relationship.” 

The Quran relates those who deny the Day of Judgement with 
those who reject orphans. 

“Have you observed him who denies the Day of Judgement. 
That is one who repels the orphans.” (Surah 107: verses 1-2) 

It can be inferred from the above verses that Allah abhors those 
who repel orphans as much as He abhors those who deny the Day of 
Judgement — one of the fundamentals of a Muslim’s faith. Denying 
the Day of Judgement amounts to unbelief and Allah has likened the 
oppressor of the orphan to an unbeliever. 

Exploitation of the orphan can lead to serious evils in the society. 
Allah in many places in the Quran has given the general 
commandment to believers to follow His commandments with regard 
to the orphan. 

Allah says in surah 4: verse 36: ‘Show kindness to parents, and 
to near kindred, and orphans, and the needy.’ 

‘Spend your wealth, out of love for Him, on your kin, on orphans, 
and on the needy’ (Surah 2: 177) 

The rights of an orphan are considered sacrosanct in Islam. Those 
who do not honour the rights of the orphan will bring down upon 
themselves the wrath of Allah both in this world and in the Hereafter. 
Allah says in the Quran: “Those who devour the wealth of orphans 
wrongfully, do but swallow fire into their bellies.” (Surah 4:10) 

At another place in the Quran, it says, “Restore the property of 
the orphans to them (when they reach maturity) and do not substitute 
your worthless things for their good ones and do not devour their 
wealth by mixing it up with your own. For this indeed a great sin.” 


65 


The Quran mentions that among the virtues of a righteous person 
is his love of feeding the poor, the indigent and the orphan for the 
love of Allah. 

Haram and Halal 

With the advent of Islam, certain legal principles were 
established which determined what was lawful (halal) and what was 
prohibited (haram) in a Muslim’s life. The principle established by 
Islam is that the things which Allah has created and the benefits 
derived from them are essentially for man’s use, and hence are 
permissible. Nothing is haram, or prohibited, except that which is 
prohibited on the basis of a sound and explicit verse of the Quran or 
a clear, authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad 

This principle is derived from freedom of action, according to 
which nothing may be restricted except what Allah has restricted. 
This is because commanding and prohibiting are both in the hands 
of Allah. The shariah is based on this very principle. If the shariah 
says something about day-to-day matters, it is to teach good 
behaviour. The Shariah prohibits whatever leads to strife. It makes 
obligatory that which is essential. It disapproves of that which is 
frivolous and approves of that which is beneficial. Since this is the 
stand of the shariah , people are free to buy, sell, and lease as they 
wish, just as they are free to eat and to drink what they want as long 
as it is not haram, i.e. prohibited by Allah. 

In Islam making lawful what is haram and making unlawful 
what is lawful, or halal, is like negating the authority of Allah and 
denying His Absolute power. To make lawful and to prohibit is the 
right of Allah. 

The Quran says: 

“You shall not falsely declare: “This is halal and that is haram ’’ , 


66 


in order to fabricate a lie against Allah; assuredly, those who fabricate 
a lie against Allah shall never prosper.” (Surah 16:116) 

Prohibiting something which is halal is similar to comitting 
shirk. It is not the task of any human being to decide what is to be 
allowed and what is to be prohibited for mankind. Allah is merciful 
to His servants: He makes things halal and haram for a reason, with 
people’s well-being in view. Accordingly, Allah has neither permitted 
anything except what is pure, nor has He prohibited anything except 
what is impure. A Muslim is not required to know exactly what is 
unclean or harmful in what Allah has prohibited; it may be hidden 
from him, but be apparent to some one else, or its harm may not be 
discovered during his lifetime, but may be understood at a later 
period. What is required of a Muslim is simply to say, “We have 
heard and we shall obey.” Allah has made halal all things which are 
good and wholesome. Allah says in the Quran: “They ask you what 
is lawful to them (as food). Say: Whatever is good is lawful to you. . . .” 
(Surah 5:4) 

Another Islamic principle is that if something is prohibited, 
anything which leads to is likewise prohibited. Islam intends to block 
all avenues leading to what is haram. For example, as Islam prohibits 
sex outside marriage, it has also prohibited anything which leads to 
or makes it attractive, such as seductive clothing, private meetings 
and casual mixing between men and women, the depiction of nudity, 
pornographic literature, obscene songs and so on. 

Islam also declares haram actions which falsely represents the 
haram as halal. Islam has made explicit what is halal and what is 
haram. Therefore, one must do what is lawful and avoid what is 
prohibited. As regards such actions as are doubtful, Islam considers it 
best to avoid doing such things. It considers it an act of piety to avoid 
doing what is doubtful in order to stay clear of doing something haram. 
In such situations a Muslim has to be cautious, fai -sighted and 
knowledgeable to understand such matters clearly. This is 


67 


underscored by a famous saying of the Prophet “To acquire 
knowledge of deen is a duty of all Muslims (both men and women).” 
This knowledge increases one’s understanding and one can thus be 
better equipped to take decisions in such doubtful situations. 

In Islam things are prohibited only because they are impure or 
harmful. If something is entirely harmful, it is haram , and if it is 
entiiely beneficial it is halal. If the harm it does outweighs its benefits, 
it is haram, while if its benefits outweigh its harm, it is halal. Islam 
has prohibited only such things as are unnecessary and dispensable, 
while providing alternatives which are better and which give greater 
ease and comfort to human beings. Whatever is halal is sufficient, 
while whatever is haram is superfluous. 

Allah has prohibited usury, but has encouraged profitable trade. 
He has prohibited gambling, but has permitted betting on horse or 
camel-racing. Allah has prohibited men from wearing silk, but has 
given them the choice of other materials such as wool, linen and 
cotton. Allah has prohibited adultery, fornication and homosexuality, 
but has encouraged lawful marriage. He has prohibited intoxicating 
drinks in older that people may enjoy other delicious drinks which 
aie wholesome for the body and mind. Likewise, He has prohibited 
unclean food but provides alternative wholesome food. Thus we see 
that if Allah limits the choice of His servants in relation to some 
things, He piovides them with a still wider range of more wholesome 
alternatives in relation to other things of a similar kind. 



68 


EXERCISES 


1. Fill in the blanks 

a. Those whom Allah loves, give food on a day of privation to the orphan with 

claims of . (relationship / happiness) 

b. The Quran relates those who deny the Day of Judgment with those who 
. (rejects orphans / are not good in society) 

c. If the shariah says something about day-to-day matters, it is to teach 
. (good behavior / Islam) 

d. Islam also declares haram actions which falsely represents the . 

( haram as halal / halal as haram) 

e. To acquire knowledge of deen is a duty of . (every men / all 

muslims) 

f. Allah has prohibited gambling, . (but has permitted betting on 

horse / and also prohibited betting on horse) 

2. True or False 

a. Islam is indifferent to the rights of the child. 

b. Making lawful what is unlawful, or haram , and making unlawful what is lawful, 
or halal, is acceptable in Islam. 

c. The Islamic shariah tells us how to deal with day-to-day matters in our lives. 

d. Islam does not prohibit all things that are impure or harmful. 

e. Allah has prohibited usury. 

f. The wearing of silk for men is appropriate in Islam. 


3. Answer the following questions 


a. Write a brief note on the rights of the orphan in Islam. 

b. What is the basis of haram and halal in Islam? 

c. Why is prohibiting something which is halal similar to comitting shirkl 

d. Write down the verses of the Quran relating to the orphan, haram and halal. 

4. Divide the class in four groups and ask them to discuss: 

a. ‘Have you observed him who denies the Day of Judgment. That is one who repels 
the orphans.’ Discuss the above Surah and how the rights of orphans highlight 
Islamic principles of establishing equality and justice in the society. 

b. Discuss the application of the concept of Haram and Halal in the day to day life and 
how their observances help in the establishment of a harmonious society. After the 
discussion each group should read out its report in the class and every student should 
write in their notebooks what they have understood from the discussions. 


69 


Chapter 11 


Man’s Accountability 



“Your hearts were taken up with worldly gain 
until you reach into your graves. 

No indeed; but soon you shall know. 
Again, no indeed; but soon you shall know. 
No indeed; if you knew the truth with certainty, 
You would surely see the fire of Hell, 

You would see it with the eye of certainty. 
Then, on that Day, you shall be questioned 
about the blessings. ” 

( The Quran 102:1-8) 


70 



This surah of the Quran is a powerful admonition 
of man’s unbounded greed for worldly gain , 
which preoccupies his heart and soul 
until he reaches the grave. 

Man wants to earn more and more 
so that he may accumulate more and more goods 
and material comforts. 

He is totally immersed in that thought 
only until he is dead. 

At that time he comes to know that 
the thing worth accumulating was something else, 
while what he was bent on accumulating 
was something else... 

Increase in the worldly goods increases 
man ’s accountability, 
while due to his foolishness 
he thinks that he is adding to 
his comfort and success. . . . 


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